300+ TOP Nephrology MCQs and Answers Quiz [Pdf Book] 2022 (2023)

Nephrology Multiple Choice Questions

1. Vascular manifestations of ADPKD include

A. Intracranial aneurysm
B. Coronary artery aneurysm
C. Thoracic aortic dissections
D. All of the above

Answer: D

2. HCV induced immune complex disease is associated with

A. Cryoglobulinemic proliferative Glomerulonephritis
B. MPGN
C. Membranous glomerulopathy
D. All of the above

Answer: D

3. Fabry’s disease, all statements are true EXCEPT

A. Fabry’s disease neutral glycosphingolipids accumulate in lysosomes
B. Zebra bodies are a histologic hallmark
C. In Fabry’s disease angiokeratomas are most dense over the nape of the neck
D. The renal disease presents with hematuria and proteinuria

Answer: C

4. Stains used to enhance basement membrane structure in renal biopsy

A. Hematoxylin and eosin
B. PAS
C. Jones methenamine silver
D. Masson’s trichrome

Answer: C

5. Following improve the biocompatibility of a dialysis membrane.

A. More free hydroxyl groups on the membrane surface
B. Less free hydroxyl groups on the membrane surface
C. More free sulfhydryl groups on the membrane surface
D. Less free sulfhydryl groups on the membrane surface

Answer: A

6. Crescentic Glomerulonephritis is the histologic lesion in which of the following drug induced glomerulopathy ?

A. Adalimumab
B. D-penicillamine
C. Allopurinol
D. Pamidronate

Answer: C

7. Gene defects associated with FSGS (Focal Segmental Glomerusclerosis).

A. Nephrin
B. Podocin
C. Actinin 4
D. All of the above

Answer: D

8. Which of the following feature is not a part of Lithium nephrotoxicity ?

A. Nephrogenic DI
B. Incomplete distal RTA (Renal Tubular Acidosis)
C. Hypocalcemia
D. Distal tubular microcysts

Answer: C

9. Which among the following is a selective antagonist of BAFF which is used as a novel therapy in IgA nephropathy ?

A. Atacicept
B. Blisibimod
C. Belimumab
D. Fostamatinib

Answer: B

10. Which of the following study showed first demonstrated that overt diabetic nephropathy can be prevented in type 2 DM with microalbuminuria ?

A. BENEDICT trial
B. RENAAL trial
C. IDNT trial
D. IRMA-2 trial

Answer: D

11. Intestinal pathogenic E.coli implicated in HUS (Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome)

A. Enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC)
B. Enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC)
C. Enteroinvasive E.coli (EIEC)
D. Adherent invasive E.coli (AIEC)

Answer: A

12. Identify the wrong statement about Dialysis associated Amyloidosis.

A. Beta 2 Microglobulin is the amyloid precursor protein in dialysis associated amyloidosis
B. Eprodisate is the specific treatment for this condition
C. Carpal tunnel syndrome is often the first symptom
D. Renal transplant may lead to symptomatic improvement

Answer: B

13. Polymorphism of which gene is implicated in influencing the therapeutic drug levels of Tacrolimus ?

A. CYP29
B. CYP2C19
C. CYP2D6
D. CYP3A5

Answer: D

14. Approved systemic therapies for metastatic renal cancer are all EXCEPT

A. Everolimus
B. Tacrolimus
C. Temsirolimus
D. Bevacizumab

Answer: B

15. Gene mutations with causal links to FSGS (Focal Segmental Glomerulo Sclerosis)

A. NPHS1
B. CD2AP
C. TRPC6
D. All the above

Answer: D

16. Find the wrong statement about Hepatitis B Virus associated renal disease

A. Hepatitis B virus associated renal disease is more common in Hepatitis B carriers
B. Membranous nephropathy is the common renal lesion
C. Spontaneous resolution of HBV associated nephropathy is common in children
D. The glomerular lesions are immune-mediated

Answer: A

17. Which of the following pharmacotherapy is used as a urease inhibitor in infection-related stones ?

A. Boric acid
B. Permanganate
C. Acetohydroxamic acid
D. None of the above

Answer: C

18. All are conditions associated with Type B Lactic acidosis EXCEPT

A. Seizures
B. Liver disease
C. Thiamine deficiency
D. CO poisoning

Answer: D

19. Classical hallmark of ATN on histological examination is

A. Patchy detachment and loss of tubular cells
B. Focal areas of proximal tubular dilatation along with distal tubular casts
C. Loss of apical brush border of PCTs (Proximal Convoluted Tubules)
D. Apoptosis of proximal and tubular cells

Answer: C

20. All of the following drugs can cause crystalluria EXCEPT

A. Sulfonamides
B. Methotrexate
C. Indinavir
D. Cimetidine

Answer: D

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21. Which one of the following personality is generally regarded as the father of Nephrology ?

A. Richard Bright
B. Thomas Graham
C. William Kolf
D. Barry Brenner

Answer: A

22. Indications for parathyroidectomy in Chronic kidney disease is all EXCEPT

A. Persistent elevation of PTH more than 800 pg/ml in spite of aggressive treatment with calcimimetics and Vitamin D analogues
B. Uncontrolled hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia
C. High levels of bone biomarkers (bone-specific ALP, TRAP5b)
D. Adynamic bone disease on bone biopsy

Answer: D

23. Ferroportin is an

A. Plasma Iron Transporter
B. Cellular Iron Exporter
C. Duodenal Iron Transporter
D. None of the above

Answer: B

24. Which of the following complement component is involved in opsonisation ?

A. C3b
B. C5b
C. C3a
D. C5a

Answer: A

25. Risk factor and triggering factors in nephrogenic systemic fibrosis caused by Gadolinium-based contrast agent in CKD are all EXCEPT

A. Haemodialysis
B. Peritoneal dialysis
C. High dose erythropoietin therapy
D. Elevated serum phosphorous

Answer: A

26. Combined liver-kidney transplantation is the best option for

A. Secondary hyperoxaluria
B. Secondary IgA Nephropathy
C. IgA Nephropathy
D. Primary Oxalosis

Answer: D

27. Which one of the following drug can be considered as therapeutic option in post-transplant Thrombotic Microangiopathy (TMA) ?

A. Belatacept
B. Methylprednisolone
C. Sirolimus
D. Tacrolimus

Answer: A

28. Which of the following is NOT true regarding alloantigen presentation to T-cells ?

A. T cells recognize alloantigen via direct or indirect pathways
B. Class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules are recognized by CD4 T-cells
C. The MHC class I system is designed to present extracellular proteins taken up and processed by antigen presenting cells
D. T-cells recognize alloantigen as peptides presented by MHC molecules

Answer: C

29. Regarding post-transplant erythrocytosis, which of the following is false ?

A. Incidence appears to have decreased to less than 10% concomitant with the more frequent use of ACE inhibitors and ARBs
B. Spontaneous remission is observed in one-fourth of patients within 2 years
C. Treatment is generally recommended for a Hb level exceeding 17 to 18 g/dl or an Hct level over 51% to 52%
D. It generally affects those with poor allograft function

Answer: D

30. Regarding PTLD, which of the following is FALSE ?

A. It is the most common malignancy in post-transplant children
B. It occurs in 1-2% of patients after kidney transplant
C. Tacrolimus has a strong antiproliferative effect on PTLD derived B cell lines
D. Reduction or discontinuation of immunosuppressive therapy, particularly cyclosporine, tacrolimus or MMF, is the first line treatment

Answer: C

31. Kaplan-Meir method is used in a clinical trial for

A. Sensitivity analysis
B. Risk analysis
C. Survival analysis
D. Cross over design data analysis

Answer: C

32. Number Needed to Treat (NNT) is computed based on

A. Odds ratio
B. Risk ratio
C. Relative risk reduction
D. Absolute risk reduction

Answer: D

33. Randomised clinical trial is a typical clinical trial of

A. Phase 1
B. Phase 2
C. Phase 3
D. Phase 4

Answer: C

34. In the amendment to the THOTA (Transplantation of Human Organ and Tissue Act) 1994, the THOTA Rules 2014, the following changes were introduced EXCEPT

A. Grandparents were also included are near relatives
B. Donor pledge form was included
C. The number of doctors for certifying brain death is reduced to two doctors from the previous rule of 4 doctors
D. An advisory committee was first defined

Answer: C

35. Which one of the following is a Neprilysyn inhibitor ?

A. Captopril
B. Nesiritide
C. Perindopril
D. Sacubitril

Answer: D

36. Which among the following statements is FALSE regarding lymphocele ?

A. The source of pretransplant lymph leaks is the lymphatic channels around the iliac arterial system rather than the lymphatics of the transplanted kidney
B. The peak incidence is at 6 weeks
C. Many small lymphoceles are asymptomatic and will resolve spontaneously given enough time
D. Wound suction drains should not be removed postoperatively until less than 100 ml of fluid is produced on 2 consecutive days

Answer: D

37. Which among the following is NOT an absolute contraindication to renal transplantation ?

A. Active sepsis
B. Active drug dependence
C. Any medical condition with a severely shortened life expectancy (<1 to 2 years)
D. Positive B cell CDC (Compliment Dependant Cytotoxicity) crossmatch

Answer: D

38. The immunosupressive drug which blocks Interleukin 2 thereby preventing the proliferation of T-lymphocytes

A. Cyclosporin
B. Abatacept
C. Alemtuzumab
D. Basiliximab

Answer: D

39. All of the following mediate Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) via impaired Microvascular Hemodynamics EXCEPT

A. Diuretics
B. Cocaine
C. Mitomycin
D. Sulfonamides

Answer: D

40. As per the transplantation of human organs and Tissues Act-1994 (India), Unrelated transplant can be done only with the approval of

A. Appropriate Authority
B. Competent Authority
C. Authorisation Committee
D. Head of the transplant center

Answer: C

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41. Size of the urea molecule and creatinine molecule is

A. 50 Da and 100 Da, respectively
B. 60 Da and 113 Da, respectively
C. 70 Da and 123 Da, respectively
D. 80 Da and 132 Da respectively

Answer: B

42. All of the following are used in managing recurrent intradilytic hypotension EXCEPT

A. Sodium profiling
B. Warm dialysate
C. Intravenous saline
D. Avoid food intake during dialysis

Answer: B

43. Leucocyte esterase test, which indicates the presence of leucocytes in urine is present in all EXCEPT

A. Neutrophils
B. Lymphocytes
C. Monocytes
D. Eosinophils

Answer: B

44. Shape of urine crystals gives a clue to the chemical composition of urinary stones. Identify the wrong match from the following pair of crystal shape and chemical composition.

A. Coffin lid appearance-Calcium oxalate monohydrate
B. Envelope shaped-Calcium oxalate dehydrate
C. Rhomboid/flat diamond shaped-Uric acid crystals
D. Needles/Sheaves of wheat-Amoxycillin

Answer: A

45. GFR equations used to estimate GFR in paediatrics is

A. Cockroft Gault equation
B. Nankiwells equation
C. Schwartz equation
D. CKD-Epi formula

Answer: C

46. C3 nephritic factor is an autoantibody associated with

A. Type 1 MPGN
B. Type 2 MPGN
C. Type 3 MPGN
D. All the above

Answer: B

47. Electron microscopic findings characteristic of post-infectious Glomerulonephritis is

A. Subepithelial electron-dense deposits
B. Mesangial and capillary wall deposits
C. Mesangial and subendothelial deposits
D. Irregular, hump like deposits on top of Glomerular basement membrane

Answer: D

48. Essential criteria for diagnosing Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)

A. Decreased effective serum osmolality (<270 mOsm/kg)

B. Urine osmolality >100 mOsm/kg
C. Urinary sodium>40 mmol/L
D. All the above

Answer: D

49. Which of the following statement on the pharmacokinetics of loop diuretics is false ?

A. Toresamide have lesser oral availability than furosemide
B. The elimination half-life of toresamide is more than Furosemide
C. Bumetanide has almost 100% bioavailability on oral administration
D. Long term use of diuretics can cause diuretic adaptation and resistance

Answer: A

50. Chinese herb nephropathy is due to

A. Glue sniffing
B. Suramin
C. Fumaric acid
D. Aristolochic acid

Answer: D

51. Which of the following drug combinations is considered unacceptable or ineffective in treating Hypertension ?

A. Beta-blockers and central adrenergic agents (eg. clonidine)
B. Calcium channel blockers and thiazide diuretics
C. Calcium channel blockers and Beta-blockers
D. RAAS blockers and Calcium channel blockers

Answer: A

52. Identify the INCORRECT statement about the biomarkers in pre-eclampsia.

A. Placental Protein 13 (PP13) is involved in normal placentation
B. sFlt1 level is increased in severe pre-eclampsia
C. sFlt1 to PIGF (Placental Growth Factor) ratio can be used in risk stratification in women with suspected pre-eclampsia
D. Urinary levels of PIGF are significantly higher in women who develop pre-eclampsia

Answer: D

53. Mutation in the gene coding for 11 Beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 2 will result in

A. Gordon syndrome
B. Liddle syndrome
C. Geller syndrome
D. Syndrome of Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess (SAME)

Answer: D

54. Inorganic phosphate is almost exclusively reabsorbed in

A. Proximal tubule
B. Loop of Henle
C. Distal Tubule
D. Collecting duct

Answer: A

55. Which of the following statement about the characteristic of the dialyzer is NOT TRUE ?

A. KoA of the dialyzer describe its ability to clear solutes
B. High-efficiency dialyzers have high KoA
C. High flux dialyzers have low membrane permeability
D. Ultrafiltration coefficient (KuF) explains the ability of the dialyzer to remove water

Answer: C

56. The dialysis nurse wants to neutralize the excess dose of Heparin which he had accidentally given to the patient. What is the dose of Protamine required to neutralize 1000 IU of Heparin ?

A. 1 mg
B. 10 mg
C. 100 mg
D. 1000 mg

Answer: B

57. Which of the following is a FALSE statement about Peritoneal dialysis solutions ?

A. Bicarbonate is the most commonly used buffer in Peritoneal dialysis solutions
B. Skin rash is the most commonly reported adverse effect on the use of Icodextrin
C. Dextrose is the osmotic agent used in conventional Peritoneal dialysis solutions
D. Dual-chamber PD solutions have a low concentration of glucose degradation products

Answer: A

58. Identify the WRONG statement about calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

A. Primary hyperoxaluria results from hepatic enzyme deficiencies
B. Bariatric surgery is used as a treatment for enteric hyperoxaluria
C. Oxalobacter formigenes is used as probiotic therapy in oxalate nephrolithiasis
D. Increase dietary calcium does not necessarily increase the risk of stone formation

Answer: B

59. Renin-angiotensin aldosterone axis all statements about this are true EXCEPT

A. AT1 receptors are responsible for most of the functions of Rennin Angiotensin system
B. Use of ACE inhibitors during pregnancy has not been associated with congenital defects
C. Angiotensinogen is converted into Angiotensin 1 and 2 by Angiotensin-converting enzyme
D. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone axis is required for normal renal development

Answer: B

60. Macula densa is the specialized region in the

A. Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
B. Loop of Henle
C. Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
D. Collecting duct

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Answer: B

61. The most likely primary cause of an acquired form of Nephrogenic Diabetes insipidus is

A. Down regulation of Aquaporin 2 receptor (AQP2)
B. Mutations in Vasopressin receptor 2 (V2R)
C. Reduction in interstitial osmolality
D. Increased urine production

Answer: A

62. Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) is primarily synthesized in

A. Choroid plexus of ventricles
B. Cardiac ventricles
C. Atrial cardiomyocytes
D. Pericytes in the tubulointerstitial compartment

Answer: B

63. Following are the renal complications of Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs EXCEPT

A. Sodium retention and hypertension
B. Papillary necrosis
C. Edema
D. Hypokalemia

Answer: D

64. Barters syndrome is characterized by all EXCEPT

A. Metabolic alkalosis
B. Hypocalcuria
C. Hypokalemia
D. Sodium wasting

Answer: B

65. In aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity following electrolyte disturbance is found

A. Hypomagnesemia
B. Hypokalemia
C. Hypocalcemia
D. All of the above

Answer: D

66. Which of the following variable is NOT USED to estimate kidney function from Plasma Creatinine in four-variable MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) equation ?

A. Age
B. Sex
C. Race
D. Weight

Answer: D

67. Which of the following statement is NOT TRUE about Vasopressin ?

A. Synthesized in the posterior pituitary
B. Secretion is stimulated by an increase in serum osmolality
C. Acts on renal 𝑉2 receptor
D. Vasopressin analogues are used in the treatment of Hepatorenal syndrome

Answer: A

68. Mark the best response from the statement below on medication associated hyperkalemia.

A. Cyclosporine and Tacrolimus cause hyperkalemia by causing hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism
B. Amiloride cause hyperkalemia by inhibiting ENaC activity in distal nephron
C. Pentamidine block ENaC receptor
D. All the above statements are true

Answer: D

69. The drug of choice for treatment of ethylene glycol induced acidosis is

A. Intravenous saline administration
B. Intravenous Bicarbonate therapy
C. Intravenous Fomepizole
D. Intravenous Thiamine

Answer: C

70. Drug induced Distal RTA

A. Amphotericin B
B. Acetazolamide
C. Topiramate
D. All of the above

Answer: A

71. Which of the following statement about transplant immunosuppressive drugs is NOT TRUE ?

A. Cyclosporin binds to FK 506 binding protein in the cytoplasm and inhibits calcineurin
B. Tacrolimus is a macrolide antibiotic
C. Mycophenolate mofetil acts by inhibiting Inosine Monophosphate dehydrogenase
D. Sirolimus shares its cytoplasmic binding protein with Tacrolimus (FBP12)

Answer: A

72. Which one of the following is an inhibitor of vascular calcification in CKD ?

A. Protein S
B. Klotho
C. Matrix metallprotein
D. Fetuin-A

Answer: D

73. Erythrocytosis in patients with CKD is seen in all of the following conditions EXCEPT

A. Polycystic kidney disease
B. Chronic allograft Nephropathy
C. Renal artery stenosis
D. Renal tumours

Answer: B

74. Which of the following statement IS TRUE regarding FGF 23 a key regulator in bone and mineral metabolism in CKD ?

A. Its chief action is to reduce phosphate reabsorption in the proximal tubule
B. FGF 23 retards the progression of CKD in diabetics and non-diabetics
C. Increased phosphate excretion is the stimuli for increase FGF 23 production
D. FGF 23 protects against the development of hyperparathyroidism

Answer: A

75. All of the following are side effects of Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (acetazolamide) use, EXCEPT

A. Increase the risk of nephrolithiasis
B. Precipitate encephalopathy in patients with liver failure
C. Symptomatic metabolic alkalosis
D. Decreased libido

Answer: C

76. Which among the following autoantibody is NOT associated with membranous nephropathy ?

A. Phospholipase A2 Receptor (PLA2R)
B. Thrombospondin tpe1 domain containing 7A (THSD7A)
C. Neutral Endopeptidase (NEP)
D. Soluble urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR)

Answer: D

77. In tubuloglomerular feedback the correct statement about adenosine is

A. Vasoconstrictor mediator of the afferent arteriole
B. Vasodilatory effect on efferent arteriole
C. Adenosine acts through A2 receptors
D. Adenosine acts through purinergic receptors

Answer: A

78. The bulk of Magnesium (Mg) is reabsorbed in which part of the tubule ?

A. Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
B. Thick Ascending limb of Loop of Henle (TAL)
C. Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
D. Collecting Duct and Connecting Tubule (CD, CT)

Answer: B

79. Which of the following is known as “Phosphatonin” ?

A. PTH
B. Klotho
C. Calcitriol
D. FGF23

Answer: D

80. Which among the following oral antidiabetic drug act by inhibiting renal tubular glucose absorption ?

A. Vildagliptin
B. Canagliflozin
C. Semaglutide
D. Pioglitazone

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Answer: B

81. Which among the following variants of FSGS, is particularly frequent in secondary forms of FSGS mediated by adaptive structural-functional responses ?

A. FSGS, not otherwise specified
B. FSGS, perihilar variant
C. FSGS, cellular variant
D. FSGS, collapsing variant

Answer: B

82. Which among the following statement is/are false ?

I. Familial IgA nephropathy may have a good prognosis.
II. Macrohematuria is a more common presentation than asymptomatic microscopic haematuria, especially in the Asian population.
III. It is more frequent in white people and Asians than in African Americans.
IV. Mesangial IgA deposits are also present in 4-16% of normal, healthy adults, living and cadaveric donors.

A. I and II
B. I and III
C. II and IV
D. II

Answer: A

83. Causes of linear staining on direct immunofluorescence of renal tissue includes

I. Anti-GBM disease
II. Older patients with hypertensive vascular disease
III. Fibrillary nephritis.
IV. Transplant biopsies.

A. I and IV
B. I, III and IV
C. I
D. I, II, III and IV

Answer: D

84. The primary goal of the 0 by 25 initiative of the International Society of Nephrology is

A. To promote kidney health in the age group of 0 years to 25 years
B. To decrease the incidence of AKI by 25% in developing world by 2025
C. To prevent avoidable deaths related to AKI by 2025
D. To be able to get 0 AKI cases in the developing world by 2025

Answer: C

85. Which of the following statements is false regarding Glomerulonephritis associated with Complement Disorders ?

A. Enhanced surface C3 activation underlies the pathogenesis of atypical Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome (aHUS)
B. Enhanced plasma C3 activation is typically seen in Dense Deposit Disease (DDD)
C. C3 Nephritic Factor (C3NeF) is present in the majority of patients C3 glomerulonephritis and approximately 50% of patients with DDD
D. Up to 80% of patients with DDD and up to half of the patients with C3GN have low levels of serum C3

Answer: C

86. All are markers of AKI (Acute Kidney Injury) EXCEPT

A. Urinary KIM-1
B. IGFBP-7
C. Urinary IL-18
D. Urinary MCP-1

Answer: D

87. According to KDIGO classification system albuminuria Stage A2 is characterized by

A. Urine albumin to creatinine ratio <30 mg per gram of creatinine
B. Urine albumin to creatinine ratio <30 mg per mg of creatinine
C. Urine albumin to creatinine ratio 30-300 mg per gram of creatinine
D. Urine albumin to creatinine ratio 30-300 mg per mg of creatinine

Answer: C

88. In classification of Diabetic kidney disease by histology, Stage 3 is characterized by

A. Mild mesangial expansion
B. Severe mesangial expansion
C. Nodular sclerosis (Kimmelsteil-Wilson Lesion)
D. Advanced glomerulosclerosis

Answer: C

89. Which of the following parasite localizes in the bladder wall ?

A. Schistosoma mansoni
B. Schistosoma hematobium
C. Schistosoma japonicum
D. All of the above

Answer: A

90. Quantitative counts of bacteria in the suprapubic aspiration specimen of urine for microbiologic diagnosis of Urinary tract infection in patients not receiving antimicrobial therapy is

A. More than 102
B. More than 103
C. More than 105
D. Any growth

Answer: D

91. Patiromer a cation exchange polymer is used in managing

A. Hypercalcemia
B. Hyperkalemia
C. Hypernatremia
D. Hypermagnesimia

Answer: B

92. Which of the following gene defect is seen in Type 3 Bartter’s syndrome ?

A. Sodium, Potassium chloride co transporter (NKCC)
B. Potassium channel (ROMK)
C. Calcium sensing receptor (CaSR)
D. Chloride channel (CIC-Kb)

Answer: D

93. Streptococcal antigens implicated in the pathogenesis of post-streptococcal Glomerulonephritis

A. Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin B (SPEB)
B. Nephritis Associated Plasmin receptor (NAPlr)
C. Both 1 and 2
D. None of the above

Answer: C

94. Which one among the following Leptospira species are not pathogenic in human ?

A. Leptospira interrogans
B. Leptospira icterohemorrhagiae
C. Leptospira canicola
D. Leptospira biflexa

Answer: D

95. Quartan malarial nephropathy is caused by chronic or repeated infections by

A. P. Falciparum
B. P. Vivax
C. P. Malariae
D. P. Ovale

Answer: C

96. Which cause of nephrotic syndrome have highest incidence of renal vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis ?

A. Minimal change disease
B. FSGS
C. Membranous Glomerulonephritis
D. Diabetic nephropathy

Answer: C

97. The most common cause of medullary nephrocalcinosis is

A. Sarcoidosis
B. Hypervitaminosis D
C. Primary hyperparathyroidism
D. Renal tubular acidosis

Answer: C

98. Autoantibodies strongly associated with scleroderma renal disease

A. U1RNP
B. SMA
C. Anti-Jo-1 antibody
D. Anti-RNA polymerase 3

Answer: D

99. Gitelman’s syndrome distinguished from Bartter’s syndrome by

A. Hypokalemia
B. Metabolic alkalosis
C. Elevated renin and aldosterone levels
D. Hypomagnesemia and hypocalcuria

Answer: D

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100. Inherited renal tubular disorder characterized by persistent isolated glycosuria in the absence of hyperglycaemia is due to a mutation in

A. SLC6A19
B. SLC5A2
C. SLC3A1
D. SLC7A9

Answer: B

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