Chapter 16 - Gastrointestinal and Urologicl Emergencies | Course Aides (2022)

Chapter 16 - Gastrointestinal and Urologicl Emergencies

Vocab from the AAOS Emergency Care and Transportation Book 10th Edition.

[{"question":"pancreatitis","answer":"Inflammation of the pancreas. Can be caused by an obstructive gallstone, alcohol abuse, and other diseases. Complications like sepsis or hemorrhage can occur, in which you may see fever or tachychardia.Symptoms: pain in upper abdomen and back, nausea, vomiting, abdominal distention, and tenderness, May lie curled on the side"},{"question":"peritoneum","answer":"The membrane lining the abdominal cavity (parietal peritoneum) and covering the abdominal organs (visceral peritoneum).Damage to the parietal: Can localize the painDamage to the visceral: Can't localize pain (stimulates when organs are stretched)"},{"question":"Symptoms of kidney infection","answer":"pain in costovertebral angle"},{"question":"cholecystitis","answer":"Inflammation of the gallbladder. Gallbladder may rupture and cause inflammation to spread and irritate surrounding structuresSymptoms: May cause pain in RUQ and right shoulder. Constant severe pain. Pain may increase for hours or come and go. commonly produces symptoms 30 min after a fatty meal and usually at night. Nausea, vomiting, indigestion, bloating, gas and belching."},{"question":"cystitis","answer":"Inflammation of the bladder. Generally caused by bacterial infection and can be referred to as UTI. If not treated, the kidneys can become infected.Symptoms: Lower mid abdomen pain, urgency and frequency of urination and pressure on the bladder, if severe urethra can be inflamed causing urinary retention, tenderness above the bladder."},{"question":"diverticulitis","answer":"Bulging out of intestinal rings in small pockets at weak areas in the muscle walls, creating abdominal discomfort.Symptoms: High fever, pain in LLQ, malaise, body aches, chills, nausea, vomitting. Adhesions may develop. making the diameter of the colon decrease and cause constipation and bowel obstruction."},{"question":"emesis","answer":"Vomiting."},{"question":"guarding","answer":"Involuntary muscle contractions (spasms) of the abdominal wall in an effort to protect an inflamed abdomen; a sign of peritonitis."},{"question":"hernia","answer":"The protrusion of a loop of an organ or tissue through an abnormal body opening. Can occur as the result of a congenital defect around umbilicus, surgical wound that has failed to heal properly, a natural weakness in an area such as the groin. The hernia is reducible if it goes back through, which poses little risk to the patient. It is incarcerated if the mass can not go back through hole, which may become serisouly compressed by the surrounding tissue, cutting off blood supply (strangulation). Symptoms: pain anywhere in abdomen, a formerly reducible mass is no longer reducible, pain at the hernia site, tenderness when the hernia is palpated, red or blues skin discoloration over the hernia."},{"question":"ileus","answer":"Paralysis of the bowel, arising from any one of several causes; stops contractions that move material through the intestine."},{"question":"kidney stones","answer":"Solid crystalline masses formed in the kidney, resulting from an excess of insoluble salts or uric acid crystallizing in the urine; may become trapped anywhere along the urinary tract. Pressure will build up behind kidney stone and cause swelling in the kidneys. Pain is often caused when stone is moved in ureter. In many cases it will pass, but it may require surgerySymptoms: Patients may first report vague discomfort in flank, but then pain may be very severe and radiate to the groin, may also report nausea and vomitting,"},{"question":"Solid Organs","answer":"Liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, and ovaries-Damage can cause shock and bleeding b\/c they have so many blood vessels"},{"question":"What does a normal bp and pulse rate, but a high respiratory rate indicate?","answer":"The patient is not able to ventilate properly because it is too painful to breath deep"},{"question":"Symptoms of ulcer","answer":"Upper mid abdomen or upper part of back. Burning or gnawing of stomach that subsides after eating then comes back. Nausea, vomitting, belching, heartburn-If it gets really bad gastric bleeding can occur, resulting in hematemesis (vomitting blood) and melena"},{"question":"Peptic ulcer disease (PUD)","answer":"Protective layer in the intestine or stomach is eroded, allowing acid to eat away the organ-Most occur as a result of an infection of the stomach with Helicobacter pylori or chronic use of NSAIDS-Alcohol and smoking can effect severity-Tens to occur more in geriatrics"},{"question":"Gastrointestinal hemorrhage","answer":"Bleeding inside GI tract. It is a symptom of another disease, not a disease in itself. If it occurs in the esophagus, problems might include esophagitis, esophageal varicose, or Mallory-Weiss Syndrome. If it occurs in lower GI, problems might be bowel inflammation, diverticulitis, and hemorrhoids. Often has a distinct odor that you can identify."},{"question":"Kidneys","answer":"Play major role in blood pressure because they can remove sodium chloride from the body and therefore lower the amount of fluid"},{"question":"Esophageal Varices","answer":"Occurs when amount of pressure in vessels surrounding the esophagus increases. They eventually deposit blood into the portal system. If the liver becomes damaged and blood can't move through it easily, blood begins to back up into these vessels and cause this. Alcohol (in developed places) and viral hepatitis (in less developed places) is main cause -spontaneous rupture is life threatening and may send patient into shock from bleedingSymptoms: Intially they show signs of liver disease, but when the varicose rupture, the patient will complain of sudden onset of discomfort in the throat and bleeding will occur"},{"question":"Gallstones","answer":"Blocks the outlet of the gallbladder. If it doesn't pass on its own it causes cholecytitis"},{"question":"duodenem","answer":"part of small intestines where digestive juices from the pancreas and liver combine"},{"question":"Symptoms of peritonitis","answer":"Nausea and vomiting, b\/c it causes ileum which backs up the system. Loss of body fluid in the abdominal cavity, which may lead to decreased bp or shock. When peritonitis is accompanies by hemorrhage, the signs of shock are much more apparent. Rebound tenderness."},{"question":"Hollow organs","answer":"gallbladder, stomach, intestines, and bladder.-If there is a leak, it will contaminate the body"},{"question":"What does a high respiratory rate and pulse rate with signs of shock indicate?","answer":"septic or hypovolemic shock"},{"question":"Dialysis","answer":"If patient misses treatment, they can exhibit weakness and pulmonary edema, Hemodialysis: Works just like normal kidneys and patient will be hooked up by their shunt Peritoneal dialysis: large amounts of dialysis fluids are infused into and back out of abdominal cavity.The fluid stays in the cavity for a couple hours, allowing equilibrium to occur. Very effective but carries a high risk of peritonitis. Can be performed in the home with good training.Adverse effects: hypotension, nausea, muscle cramps, vomitting, hemorrhage from access site, infection as access siteMany patients have a catheter and reporting any symptoms that are like kidney failure could be because they have an infection"},{"question":"appendicitis","answer":"Inflammation of the appendix. Inflammation can cause tissues to die or rupture, causing abcess, peritonitis or shock. Symptoms: Normal temp until it ruptures, pain in LRQ or around naval, rebound tenderness (women who are pregnant may not feel this). Initially pain is generalized and diffuse, but pain later localizes. nasusea, vomiting, anorexia, fever, chills. May draw right knee up for comfort"},{"question":"acute abdomen","answer":"A condition of sudden onset of pain within the abdomen, usually indicating peritonitis; immediate medical or surgical treatment is necessary."},{"question":"Spleen","answer":"Not part of the digestive system. Assists in filtration of blood, aids development of red blood cells, and serves as a blood reservoir and produces antibodies."},{"question":"Most common cause of secondary hypertension","answer":"kidney disease"},{"question":"urinary tract infection (UTI)","answer":"Infections, usually of the lower urinary tract (urethra and bladder), which occur when normal flora bacteria enter the urethra and grow."},{"question":"Gastroenteritis","answer":"Comprises a family of conditions revolving around a central theme of infection combined with diarrhea, nausea and vomitting. Can be cause by bacterial and viral organs that enter body through contaminated food or water (It is basically food poisoning)"},{"question":"referred pain","answer":"Pain felt in an area of the body other than the area where the cause of pain is located."},{"question":"peritonitis","answer":"Inflammation of the peritoneum. Mostly due to material such as blood, pus, bile, pancreatic juice or amniotic fluid can cause irritation of the peritoneum. Will usually occur if the acute abdomen is not treated and can be fatal.Symptoms: Pain anywhere in abdomen"},{"question":"uremia","answer":"Severe kidney failure resulting in the buildup of waste products within the blood. Eventually brain functions will be impaired."},{"question":"strangulation","answer":"Complete obstruction of blood circulation in a given organ as a result of compression or entrapment; an emergency situation causing death of tissue."},{"question":"Jejunem","answer":"Plays major role in the absorption of digestive products"},{"question":"How to palpate abdomen","answer":"Ask where the pain is, then begin with the quadrant after the one that the patient indicated. Use a clockwise motion and end in the quadrant that the patient indicated."},{"question":"Hemorrhoids:","answer":"Created by swelling and inflammation of blood vessels surrounding the rectum. Pregnancy (strains stool) and chronic constipation cause increased pressure and diarrhea can cause irritation.Symptoms: Bright red blood during defecation, itching, small mass on rectum"},{"question":"Esophagitis","answer":"Occurs when lining of the esophagus becomes inflamed from acids in the stomach (gastroesophageal reflex disease).Symptoms: Pain when swallowing, feeling like an object is in their throat, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, sores in mouth"},{"question":"Abdominal aortic aneurism (AAA)","answer":"Pain in lower quadrants and lower back. Patient usually describes pain as tearing. Do not palpate abdomen bacuase you could rupture the aneurism and do not aggressively treat for shock. Look for a difference of pulse strength between each arm. You may be able to see a pulsating mass."},{"question":"Renal failure","answer":"Kidney failure can be acute or chronic. -Acute renal failure is a sudden decrease in function. Occurs from hemorrhage, dehydration, trauma, shock, sepsis, heart failure, medications, drug abuse and kidney stones. Can be reversed with quick treatment.-Chronic renal failure is irreversible. Caused by diabetes or hypertension. The kidney tissue shrinks and the function diminishes. Eventually patient required dialysis or transplant. Symptoms include altered LOC, lethargy, nausea, headaches, cramps, and demes and later coma or seizures."},{"question":"Mallory-Weiss Syndrome","answer":"Junction between esophagus and stomach tears, causing severe bleeding and potentially death. May lead to severe hemorrhage. -alcohol and eating disorders could cause this.Symptom: vomitting is most common, bleeding can range from a lot to a little, but if it is very bad patients can present with signs of shock, upper abdominal pain, hematemesis, and melena."},{"question":"Symptoms of pneumonia","answer":"Referred pain to upper abdomen, ileus and abdominal pain"},{"question":"Symptoms of kidney stone","answer":"Pain in right or left flank, radiating to genitalia"}]

You might also like

Latest Posts

Article information

Author: Roderick King

Last Updated: 08/01/2022

Views: 6247

Rating: 4 / 5 (71 voted)

Reviews: 94% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Roderick King

Birthday: 1997-10-09

Address: 3782 Madge Knoll, East Dudley, MA 63913

Phone: +2521695290067

Job: Customer Sales Coordinator

Hobby: Gunsmithing, Embroidery, Parkour, Kitesurfing, Rock climbing, Sand art, Beekeeping

Introduction: My name is Roderick King, I am a cute, splendid, excited, perfect, gentle, funny, vivacious person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.